Research-based learning in institution of higher learning is a significant instrument of developing the quality of student knowledge, reflection, practicality, creativity, and problem solving, enabling the formation of individuals who are conversant with scientific skills for effective development. A majority of educators today are using research-based teaching in undergraduate science students, encouraging them to learn by inquiry using a variety of promulgated institutional, departmental, and teacher-student integrative programs in the attainment of necessary research skills to augment their career development. Conversely, learning in the university and especially in undergraduate science courses has posed a variety of problematic experiences for students after the completion of their courses, during work practice and employment. Most of the students go through undergraduate science studies and come out as graduates without lucid and concrete knowledge to contribute in a highly competitive society. Many employers have complained that fresh graduates in science courses are lacking fundamental practical knowledge in carrying out work related issues. Lacking research-based learning exposure creates a situation whereby students lack the necessary experience to foster, creativity, problem solving, and integration of issues into their practical ramification. This paper provides a literature review on why research based learning is important for undergraduate science students, elucidating on the relevance of the issue to the current and learning context, relevant literature on the topic, and a critique of the literature within an analytical framework.