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Annotated Bibliography

Section #1 – Common Knowledge

“Sleep.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 11 Oct. 2014. Web. 24 Mar 2015.

Because my topic is sleep deprivation, this seemed to be the most logical choice for the common knowledge article. It includes helpful definitions and descriptions of the stages of sleep and the different mechanisms included in sleep, including generalizations about many different problems and ways to treat problems that may affect how well we sleep. Finally, the “Anthropology of sleep” section describes how different sleep is treated across various cultures and also describes differences and similarities between humans and non-humans.

The below information is cited as coming from journals including the Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine and the American Journal of Physiology; textbooks such as Psychology; Anatomy and Physiology: The Unity of Form and Function, 6th ed; Psychology the Science of Behavior, 4th ed.; and three websites—the Institute of Neurosciences, Mental Health and Addiction (INMHA) on the Canadian Institutes of Health Research website;, a non-profit website reviewed and maintained by scholars; and the National Sleep Foundation, another non-profit website reviewed and maintained by scholars.

Usable Information

“In mammals and birds, sleep is divided into two broad types: rapid eye movement (REM) and non-rapid eye movement (NREM or non-REM) sleep. Each type has a distinct set of associated physiological and neurological features. The American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) further divides NREM into three stages: N1, N2, and N3, the last of which is also called delta sleep or slow-wave sleep. NREM stage 1: This is a stage between sleep and wakefulness. The muscles are active, and the eyes roll slowly, opening and closing moderately. NREM stage 2: theta activity In this stage, it gradually becomes harder to awaken the sleeper; in this stage the alpha waves of the previous stage are interrupted by abrupt activity called sleep spindles and K-complexes. NREM stage 3: Formerly divided into stages 3 and 4, this stage is called slow-wave sleep (SWS). SWS is initiated in the preoptic area and consists of delta activity, high amplitude waves at less than 3.5 Hz. The sleeper is less responsive to the environment; many environmental stimuli no longer produce any reactions.REM: The sleeper now enters rapid eye movement (REM) where most muscles are paralyzed. REM sleep is turned on by acetylcholine secretion and is inhibited by


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neurons that secrete serotonin. This level is also referred to as paradoxical sleep because the sleeper, although exhibiting EEG waves similar to a waking state, is harder to arouse than at any other sleep stage. Vital signs indicate arousal and oxygen consumption by the brain is higher than when the sleeper is awake.”

“Sleep timing is controlled by the circadian clock, sleep-wake homeostasis, and in humans, within certain bounds, willed behavior. The circadian clock—an inner timekeeping, temperature-fluctuating, enzyme-controlling device—works in tandem with adenosine, a neurotransmitter that inhibits many of the bodily processes associated with wakefulness. Adenosine is created over the course of the day; high levels of adenosine lead to sleepiness. In diurnal animals, sleepiness occurs as the circadian element causes the release of the hormone melatonin and a gradual decrease in core body temperature. The timing is affected by one’s chronotype. It is the circadian rhythm that determines the ideal timing of a correctly structured and restorative sleep episode.”

“Hours by age – Children need more sleep per day in order to develop and function properly: up to 18 hours for newborn babies, with a declining rate as a child ages. A newborn baby spends almost 9 hours a day in REM sleep. By the age of five or so, only slightly over two hours is spent in REM. Studies say that school age children need about 10 to 11 hours of sleep. Age and condition Sleep Needs: Newborns (0–2 months) 12 to 18 hours; Infants (3–11 months) 14 to 15 hours; Toddlers (1–3 years) 12 to 14 hours; Preschoolers (3–5 years) 11 to 13 hours; School-age children (5–10 years) 10 to 11 hours; Adolescents (10–17 years) 8.5 to 9.25 hours; Adults, including elderly 7 to 9 hours; Pregnant women 8(+) hours.”


Annotated Bibliography #1 – Common Knowledge I need the four parts of the entry: 1) the citation, 2) the summary, 3) the assessment, and 4) the usable information.

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