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ASSIGNMENT 05 EN130 English Composition Directions: Unless otherwise stated, answer in complete sentences, and be sure to use correct English spelling and grammar. Sources must be cited in APA format. Your response should be a minimum of one (1) single-spaced page to a maximum of two (2) pages in length; refer to the “Assignment Format” page for specific format requirements. Using what you learned in Lessons 1 and 2 as well as in this lesson, write a well-developed Argument essay on one of the following topics: ?¤ Do corporations have a social responsibility beyond just obeying the law? ?¤ Privatization of government services ?¤ NAFTA ?¤ Minimum Wage ?¤ National Health Care ?¤ Workplace electronic surveillance and privacy issues ?¤ Distance education or traditional education ?¤ Internet privacy ?¤ PC or Mac ?¤ Windows or Linux ?¤ Should there be an Internet sales tax? Your essay, which must demonstrate your understanding of the argument essay, will be graded using the following scale: Essay clearly demonstrates the concept of argumentation 15 points Clear thesis statement/purpose for essay 10 points Paragraph development (includes thesis support, topic sentences, and paragraph unity and coherence) 35 points Organization of essay (including transitions) 20 points Use of language (includes grammar and punctuation) 20 points 100 points You may use outside sources if you document them using APA format, or you may write this essay based entirely on your knowledge/experience. THIS IS THE END OF ASSIGNMENT 05. Text Readings In Writing Today, read Chapter 14. Lecture Notes Tropes and Schemes In the Lecture for Lesson 3, I gave you 20 different sentence patterns to add to your writing repertoire. Now, I will go “old school” with some other techniques for you to think about. These techniques are taken from classical rhetoric. Their stylistic features certainly can add zing to your writing and speaking. Tropes and schemes are persuasive because they dress up otherwise mundane language; we are persuaded by the imagery and artistry because we find it entertaining. Read the paper or listen to professional speakers such as politicians, and you hear them use these language forms to create specific social and political effects by playing on our emotions. Now it is your turn to play! Definitions: Trope: The use of a word, phrase, or image in a way not intended by its normal signification. Scheme: A change in standard word order or pattern. Tropes and schemes are collectively known as figures of speech. The following is a short list of some of the most common figures of speech. The following examples have been taken from selected figures that politicians and pundits use often–especially schemes of repetition and word order, which convey authority. Anaphora: A scheme in which the same word or phrase is repeated at the beginning of successive phrases, clauses, or sentences. Example: “I will fight for you. I will fight to save Social Security. I will fight to raise the minimum wage.” Anastrophe: A scheme in which normal word order is changed for emphasis. Example: “Ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your country.” Antithesis: A scheme that makes use of contrasting words, phrases, sentences, or ideas for emphasis (generally used in parallel grammatical structures). Example: “Americans in need are not strangers, they are citizens, not problems, but priorities.” Apostrophe: A scheme in which a person or an abstract quality is directly addressed, whether present or not. Example: “Freedom! You are a beguiling mistress.” Epistrophe: A scheme in which the same word is repeated at the end of successive phrases, clauses, or sentences. Example: “I believe we should fight for justice. You believe we should fight for justice. How can we not, then, fight for justice?” Hyperbole: A trope composed of exaggerated words or ideals used for emphasis and not to be taken literally. Example: “I’ve told you a million times not to call me a liar!” Irony: A trope in which a word or phrase is used to mean the opposite of its literal meaning. Example: “I just love scrubbing the floor.” Litotes: A trope in which one makes a deliberate understatement for emphasis. Example: Young lovers are kissing and an observer says: “I think they like each other.” Metaphor: A trope in which a word or phrase is transferred from its literal meaning to stand for something else. Unlike a simile, in which something is said to be “like” something else, a metaphor says something is something else. Example: “Debt is a bottomless sea.” Metonymy: A trope that substitutes an associated word for one that is meant. Example: Using “top brass” to refer to military officers. Oxymoron: A trope that connects two contradictory terms. Example: “Bill is a cheerful pessimist.” Periphrasis: A trope in which one substitutes a descriptive word or phrase for a proper noun. Example: “The big man upstairs hears your prayers.” Personification: A trope in which human qualities or abilities are assigned to abstractions or inanimate objects. Example: “Integrity thumbs its nose at pomposity.” Pun: A play on words in which a homophone is repeated but used in a different sense. Examples: “She was always game for any game.” Rhetorical Question: A trope in which the one asks a leading question. Example: “With all the violence on TV today, is it any wonder kids bring guns to school?” Simile: A trope in which one states a comparison between two things that are not alike but have similarities. Unlike metaphors, similes employ “like” or “as.” Example: “Her eyes are as blue as a robin’s egg.” Synecdoche: A trope in which a part stands for the whole. Example: “Tom just bought a fancy new set of wheels.” Zeugma: A trope in which one verb governs several words, or clauses, each in a different sense. Example: “He stiffened his drink and his spine.” Now that you have this list, start experimenting by trying one or two in your writing. Don’t go crazy with this stuff. A little goes a long way! Always be true to yourself, but continue to grow and expand as a writer. With thanks to: http://rhetorica.net/tropes.htm Text Readings In Writing Today, read Chapters 1-5. Lecture Notes Thesis Statements Your textbook does a great job of discussing the thesis statement in Chapter 3, but I wanted to reinforce it a little more. After all, the thesis statement is the most important line in your essay! THE THESIS STATEMENT: Clearly states the narrowed, limited topic or subject of your essay Clearly makes an assertion, provides a focus, states an opinion regarding your topic; the assertion may be A single word (frightening, challenged, childish, surpasses) A phrase or clause (an atypical female character, a life-changing event, should not be banned) Takes an original, as opposed to trite, common, or well-known, approach to a topic Takes only one assertion Controls the direction, the development of the essay Is stated in only one sentence Appears at the end of the introductory paragraph (within the last two sentences) EXAMPLES: (The topic or subject is underlined and the assertion is in bold print.) The near-tragic automobile accident resulted in several significant changes in my lifestyle. Mr. Adkison uses some bizarre teaching techniques to help his students improve their writing. The movie Cold Mountain deserves to “sweep” the Academy Awards this year. My experience as a tutor has benefited me in a number of ways. WHEN FORMULATING YOUR THESIS STATEMENT: DO NOT announce the subject of your essay; such a statement usually does not contain the assertion required for a thesis statement. Do NOT write: I am going to write about my high school graduation. My thesis will be the skiing trip I took during the Christmas holidays. My paper will discuss and develop the differences between the Ford Explorer and the Jeep Grand Cherokee. DO NOT make more than one assertion. Do NOT write: My high school graduation was fun, exciting, and sad. My ski trip to the Canadian Rockies provided many wonderful family memories, taught me a lesson about following rules, and allowed me to improve my skiing technique. The 2004 Jeep Grand Cherokee is
the most popular Sport Utility Vehicle on the market and is a better buy than the Ford Explorer. DO NOT include words or phrases such as “I think,” “I believe,” “In my opinion.” If your thesis is properly stated (worded), the reader will know that the ideas expressed are yours. DO NOT present a statement of fact as a thesis. A thesis should provoke argument or disagreement, and it should be proven with examples, facts, and concrete evidence. A statement of fact does not have to be proven; we already know it to be true. FACTS may be used as support for a thesis but should not make up the thesis. In writing your thesis, ask yourself, “Can I prove this statement with specific examples, facts, and/or personal experiences?” Do NOT write: Teenagers like to spend time with their friends. John F. Kennedy served as President of the United States in the early 1960s. The Weather Channel provides up-to-the-minute weather conditions for all major regions of the country. DO NOT be vague, or too general. Do NOT write: Some people think the drug problem among teens is getting worse. Having Friday Chat discussions at Ashworth University has disadvantages and advantages for both students and faculty. I learned many things about college last semester. Professional athletes are admired for the many things they do. DO NOT make unreasonable and/or unsubstantiated claims, insulting or derogatory remarks, or oversimplified statements. Do NOT write: Sexual misconduct among immature, underage teenagers has increased sharply in recent years. Radical animal-rights fanatics have made hunting nearly impossible for serious, law-abiding hunters. These masochists who insist on puncturing and piercing every available body part are crazy. Text Readings In Writing Today, read Chapters 20, 21, and then 18. You will notice that your textbook discusses MLA guidelines and then APA guidelines; focus on the APA guidelines as you read since you will use APA format in all of your courses at Ashworth University. Lecture Notes Evaluating Online Research Options Most students now turn to online research tools as their initial reference base. However, as the Internet, and particularly the World Wide Web, is still a wholly-unregulated publication tool; proper documentation and evaluation of online sources is necessary. Evaluate your online research methods using these five tips. Judge the quality of online material with a critical eye. Reputable sites, such as The New York Times, Consumer Reports, and other sites associated with major publications, are generally valid and accurate with their information. However, these sources should be scrutinized as any other source. Government sites associated with specific departments, i.e., Department of Labor (dol.gov), provide very good sources of primary information. However, any individual can post a site, so be aware of the entity — person or organization — presenting the information. Consider when the information was posted. Many sites have “Last Updated _____” notices. This information is critical when determining the validity and accuracy of a current statistic or comment. While you may obtain employment information from the Department of Labor, if the information is from 1995 and you are researching current trends, the information is not helpful for anything more than a comparison statement. You still need valid statistics from more recent years. Check for bias or perspective in a document. While most articles and journals are expected to establish an objective viewpoint, many publications present a slanted perspective to serve their greater purpose. This is extremely important when reviewing newsletters from organizations with a specific agenda (e.g., the Sierra Club’s newsletter will read very differently than the U.S. Chamber of Commerce publication concerning environmental legislation. Which would you trust ?X a group that values profit or one that values the planet? Why? Think about the big picture. Even articles from reputable sources often cater to a particular viewpoint (e.g., The Wall Street Journal). For another look at bias, look at the FAIR (Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting) Web site http://www.fair.org/activism/detect.html. Remember, different search engines/directories will lead you to different information. The online world is so vast that no one search engine or online directory can contain all the updated information. Thus, utilize a variety of search engines. While you will find overlap, you may also obtain several pearls of information you would have missed otherwise. Some major engines to consider: AltaVista: www.altavista.com AOL: www.aol.com Excite: www.excite.com Go: www.go.com HotBot: www.hotbot.com Lycos: www.lycos.com MSN Search: www.msn.com Magellan: www.magellan.com Snap: www.snap.com WebCrawler: www.webcrawler.com Yahoo: www.yahoo.com Note: Yahoo is a directory, not a search engine; it categorizes sites by topic. Dogpile: www.dogpile.com Note: Dogpile will search databases, catalogs, and multiple search engines for you using your key words. Use e-mail and postings to discussion groups to lead you to additional information. Rarely use them as a direct source. Unless you are interviewing a verifiable source via e-mail, comments made in a discussion group should not be included as a major reference in a research or documented paper. Rather, join discussion groups or request e-mail to glean suggestions, opinions, and ideas about where to search for accountable information.
Should There Be An Internet Sales Tax
In Quill v. North Dakota  decision, US Supreme Court ruled that retailers are excused to collect sales taxes in states if they have no physical presence. Following this decision, so far most of the online business sites do not take any form of taxes from the customers. However, in recent years, most of the local and state governments have been pushing Congress to overturn the law and start sales tax in all states. Congress has also taken initiative regarding the issue and there have been several proposals to resolve the issue. However, the question of fairness in implementing sales tax in e-commerce still brings in a lot of disagreements. Before we discuss the importance of online sales tax in state and federal level; let’s think about the global perspective on this issue. In current state, it is nearly impossible to introduce international taxing system for online buying and selling. First of all, there is not global taxing standard for business. The tax structure varies from country to country and the total socio economical states of the country have significant value in fixing the tax rate. It is impossible to generalize taxing system of a poor African country with a developed country in Europe…….ORDER NOW….@..http://unimasteressays.com/order/
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