Protein Structure

Order Instructions/Description

Introduction:

Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), also known as mad cow disease, is a worldwide problem. While the United States and many countries in the European Union have regulatory legislation in place to combat the spread of BSE, many other countries do not yet have the ability to enact such regulations, making the import and use of possibly tainted beef a health risk.

You should compile your work for this task in a single document (e.g., Microsoft Word, Google Document) that will include diagrams, models, text explanations, and references. If a requirement asks for an explanation, you should provide a written response in a narrative style (i.e., complete sentences rather than bullet points).

Note: Multimedia presentations (e.g., PowerPoint, Keynote) will not be accepted due to potential originality concerns.

Note: Please save submission documents as *.doc, *.docx, *.rtf, or *.pdf files. If you are using Google Documents, you must save the file in *.pdf format and upload the *.pdf file.

Scenario:

As a specialist in biochemistry, you have been asked to be part of a team that will assist a country that currently does not have regulatory legislation. You will help the other workers in understanding BSE at a chemical level. Because these workers are unfamiliar with the basic biochemistry concepts necessary to understand how BSE occurs, you will need to include an overview of proteins.

Requirements:

A. Create an original model of an essential amino acid (e.g., lysine, threonine) that shows the atoms and bonds in both the backbone and the side chain.

Note: Take a picture or screenshot of your completed model as evidence that you created it. You can include the picture or screenshot as part of your document, or you can submit it in Taskstream as a separate attachment.

B. Create an original diagram, or series of simple diagrams, with clear labels, of the different levels of protein structure (i.e., primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary).

C. Create an original diagram, or series of simple diagrams, that demonstrates how a peptide bond is made through dehydration, using a complete chemical equation.

Note: A complete chemical equation includes the chemical structures of all reactants, an arrow indicating the direction of the reaction, and the chemical structures of all products.

D. Create an original diagram, or series of simple diagrams, that demonstrates how a peptide bond is broken through hydrolysis, using a complete chemical equation.

Note: A complete chemical equation includes the chemical structures of all reactants, an arrow indicating the direction of the reaction, and the chemical structures of all products.

E. Explain the four forces (i.e., bonds or interactions) that stabilize a protein’s structure at the tertiary level.

F. Explain how bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) occurs at a molecular level by doing the following:

  1. Explain the role of prions in BSE, including each of the following:

● how prions are formed

● the connection between misfolding and aggregation

● how prions lead to the disease

  1. Explain one possible role of a chaperone protein in BSE, including each of the following:

● how chaperones normally act in the cell

● how a chaperone protein can contribute to BSE

  1. Recommend two ways that a country without regulations in place can decrease the risk of transmitting the prion involved in BSE (e.g., feeding practices, animal disposal).

G. When you use sources, include all in-text citations and references in APA format.

Note: For definitions of terms commonly used in the rubric, see the Rubric Terms web link included in the Evaluation Procedures section.

Note: When using sources to support ideas and elements in an assessment, the submission MUST include APA formatted in-text citations with a corresponding reference list for any direct quotes or paraphrasing. It is not necessary to list sources that were consulted if they have not been quoted or paraphrased in the text of the assessment.

Note: No more than a combined total of 30% of a submission can be directly quoted or closely paraphrased from sources, even if cited correctly. For tips on using APA style, please refer to the APA Handout web link included in the General Instructions section.