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Nursing theories are classified according to their breadth and depth. A grand theory is very broad, and a middle-range theory is narrower and makes connections between grand theories and nursing practice.
All nursing is based on interpersonal relationships, according to Peplau. Understanding the effect of stressors upon the patient and teaching new behavior patterns are fundamental objectives in the nurse-patient interpersonal relationship. The nurse is involved in the personal growth of the patient in one or more of six defined roles, which vary according to setting.
Orlando’s theory is specific to nurse-patient interaction, emphasizing deliberate action based on closely observing patient behavior.
Stimulating the formation of the Transcultural Nursing Society, Leininger’s theory of cultural care involves planning nursing care based on cultural knowledge.
Describe the use of nursing theory for nurses at your current level of nursing education, and how you can begin to shape your practice even during early clinical experiences.
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