MODULE ARC4004 Cultural Context re-sit essay

Paper, Order, or Assignment Requirements


Choose ONE of the four questions below and write on it 2200-2500 words, in the form of an illustrated and fully referenced essay.

READ THE QUESTION CAREFULLY and address the points being raised there. Make sure you keep to the point. You MUST refer to the reading listed below but also to your notes and handouts from the lecture course. Your essay will fail if you don’t use the set readings. You are also advised to refer to additional sources – those suggested on the lecture handouts or further reading indicated in your primary sources.

The books listed below have been placed on Project Loan and are located in a specific part of the Library. If you cannot find them then please ask at the desk. You will be able to use these in the library but not be allowed to remove them from the reading room so you can all have access to them as fairly as possible. Photocopy the relevant sections and return the books to the library shelf for others to do the same. (Tip: After photocopying, make sure you write on your copy the author, book title, publisher, and year – or, photocopy the book’s credits page with this information. This way, when you have to reference your quotations you will have at hand the information you need.)
Your essay must be fully referenced. A Guide to Essay Writing and a BCU Referencing Guide are up on Moodle. You may be penalised for using academically inappropriate sources. Please note that websites like Wikipedia or “history-for-kids” are inappropriate for this level of study.
Your essay must be illustrated. Illustrations should be chosen to reinforce the points that you make in the essay. These can be scans from books. Ensure the illustrations are numbered, captioned and the credits given at the back of the document.


1. The transformation of the Roman Basilica
Describe a Roman Basilica, its form and use within the Roman world and why it was considered a suitable building to use as a church. Include reference to any other aspects of Roman architecture and culture which contributed to this transformation.

• Brown, Frank E., Roman Architecture, Studio Vista, London 1968
• McDonald, W., The Architecture of the Roman Empire (vol. I An Introductory Study)
Yale University Press 1965 or 1982
• Ward Perkins, J B. Roman Imperial Architecture, Yale University Press / Pelican
history of art, 1992 pp.33-36, 84-88, 97-120, 415-439.
• Duby, G., A History of Private Life: From Pagan Rome to Byzantium, Harvard
University Press, 1987.
• Krautheimer, R., Early Christian and Byzantine Architecture, Yale University Press, 1986. Chapter 1 and 2
• David Watkin, A History of Western Architecture, 1986, pp.48-76,

2. The emergence of the Baroque
Making direct reference to buildings by Borromini and Bernini, discuss the relationship of the Baroque to earlier classical styles, showing how the Baroque developed from them but also how it was different. Explain these differences in terms of the wider historical, social, and cultural conditions of the period.

• Arnold Hauser The social history of art 3rd ed., 1999, vol.II, “Renaissance, Mannerism, Baroque”, chapters 8, 9 and 10
• Christian Norberg-Schulz, Baroque Architecture, 1979, ch. 3
• Anthony Blunt, Baroque and Rococo Architecture and Decoration, 1982, pp. 20-48
• Grombich, E., The Story of Art, 1985, ch. 13, 15 & 21
• Henry Millon, Baroque and Rococo Architecture, 1961 ch. 1 & 2.
• Rudolf Wittkower, Art and Architecture in Italy 1600-1750, Vol II The High Baroque,
1999, pp1-5, 23-39, 39-63

3. Palladio and England
Using particular examples describe aspects of the distinctive nature of Palladio’s villas in the Veneto and their influence on the architecture of England, again using particular examples.

• Peter Murray, The Architecture of the Italian Renaissance, 1986, ch. 6, 7 and 9
• Wolfgang Lotz, Architecture in Italy, 1500-1600, 1995, ch. 12
• Rudolph Wittkower, Palladio and Palladianism. 1983,
• David Watkin, The English Vision: The Picturesque in Architecture, Landscape &
Garden Design (London: John Murray, 1982), chapter 1

4. Historicism and the deployment of Style
Using examples, discuss issues surrounding the use of different styles in the nineteenth century. How do you explain the possibility for one architect to utilise different styles, drawn from different periods of history, for the same project?
• Barry Bergdoll, European Architecture 1750-1890, 2000, pp. 14-23, 139-160), 189- 195
• Hitchcock, Henry Russell. Architecture: 19th and 20th centuries, 1970, chapter 1
• Robin Middleton, David Watkin, Architecture of the 19th Century, 2003, ch. 3
• John Summerson, The Classical Language of Architecture, London: Thames and
Hudson, 1980

Your Essay will be assessed on the basis of the following assessment criteria:
• The quality and range of research undertaken and the data collected.
• The structure of the essay revealing a clear line of argument addressing the question.
• The level of critical thinking in line with the question; creative use of data, linkage of several issues,
• developed arguments and informed decisions.
• The quality of language used: spelling, grammar, sentence-formation, and paragraph usage.
• The accuracy of academic apparatus: references, bibliography, illustration references, contents.
• Graphic design of essay: clarity of layout; diagrams and illustrations; relation of text to illustrations.

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