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Publication of research in scholarly, peer-reviewed publications is the basis for scientific advancement and professional success. (“publish or perish”) A “jury” of experts (reviewers) in the field reads each manuscript and recommends its acceptance or rejection for publication, to the editor of the journal.
Nonetheless, published research is sometimes false. When this is discovered, the scientist responsible is subject to professional sanctions (firing) and civil judgments (jail).
The primary reasons for these actions are falsifying data and self-plagiarism.
biased reviews of papers or grant proposals
bias created by business funding
changing collected data
making-up data, without any research
stealing someone else’s data
submitting a paper containing text copied from a previous paper, or publishing the same text in a different language.
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