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For the earliest psychologists the subject matter of psychology was conscious experience, and the issue of explaining behavior did not arise. But with the advent of behaviorism, behavior became the subject matter of psychology instead of conscious experience. Behaviorism eventually divided into two different schools of thought, methodological behaviorism and radical behaviorism. the paper should be about the two schools of thought, their history, and views on the inner processes. here is something brief about the two schools:
Radical behaviorism: Psychology is the science of behavior and should appeal only to observable variables (e.g. stimuli and responses) to explain behavior. (John B. Watson, B. F. Skinner). The approach of these scholars could be described as positivistic (a la Comte).
Methodological behaviorism: Psychology is the science of behavior but it can appeal to intervening variables to account for observable behavior. Edward Tolman and Clark Hull subscribed to this viewpoint. The approach of these scholars was underpinned by logical positivism, a philosophy of science that considers the postulation of unobservable entities to be admissible as long as these are linked to observable phenomena.
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