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ETHC 445 Principles of Ethics
This exam covers all 14 TCO’s.
For each of the following multiple choice questions, please select the Philosophy (and/or Philosopher) which best goes with each description below.
Question 1.1. (TCOs 2, 4, 5, 6) The idea that the assisted suicide of terminally ill patients should be always prohibited reflects what type of ethics? (Points : 5)
Question 2.2. (TCOs 1, 2, 7) What is the moral ideal of prudence? (Points : 5)
Question 3.3. (TCOs 1, 2) One of the common errors in Ethics is that of the double standard. Double standard consists of what? (Points : 5)
Question 4.4. (TCO 2) Prescriptive language used in ethical discussions is characterized by which of the following words? (Points : 5)
Question 5.5. (TCOs 7, 8) Ethics that teaches us what we should do in our own self-interest is taught through which style of ethics? (Points : 5)
Question 6.6. (TCOs 2, 4, 9) John Locke, as a Social Contract theorist, is said to have been the most influential person who was not actually present at the table when what document was written? (Points : 5)
Question 7.7. (TCOs 3, 6) The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was created through a congressional enabling act as a governmental agency to act on the concerns voiced by environmental ethicists. Their actions include which of the following? (Points : 5)
Question 8.8. (TCOs 3, 6, 7) Where in our course does the following phrase apply: “The only thing good without qualification is a good will”? (Points : 5)
Question 9.9. (TCOs 8, 9) “We ought to do whatever will promote the greatest happiness for the greatest number.” This is an example of what? (Points : 5)
Question 10.10. (TCOs 3, 6, 7) Syllogisms in formal deductive logic are called “valid” when: (Points : 5)
Question 11.11. (TCOs 1, 2) When choosing one course of action while working with a dilemma, the other courses of action are lost and become unavailable. This makes ethical choices in dilemma situations particularly what? (Points : 5)
Question 12.12. (TCOs 1, 2, 7) What is the role of conscience as Thomas Aquinas sees it? (Points : 5)
Question 13.13. (TCOs 2, 8) The single criterion for making decisions in objectivist ethics is what? (Points : 5)
Question 14.14. (TCOs 1, 2, 5) The world view of ruthless and unending competition for property and wealth was spelled out in which of these concepts? (Points : 5)
Question 15.15. (TCOs 3, 6, 7) Kant’s concern that people choose to observe universal laws as their duty is expressed through what actions? (Points : 5)
Question 16.16. (TCOs 2, 7, 8) Personal development and discovery through the repetition of good acts and study of virtue characterizes what ethicist? (Points : 5)
Question 17.17. (TCOs 2, 8) Professional codes of conduct serve what function for business and industry? (Points : 5)
Question 18.18. (TCOs 2, 7) Aristotle’s Ethical Doctrine of the Mean measured personal virtues on a scale that included the virtue itself, the excess of it, and the deficiency of it.
If the virtue is GENEROSITY, and the excess is WASTEFULNESS, what is the deficiency? (Points : 5)
Question 19.19. (TCOs 8, 9) Processes and systems designed to slow down disagreeing behavior and think situations through more deliberately are called (Points : 5)
Question 20.20. (TCOs 1, 2) The Latin term a priori describes the origin of knowledge developed rationally, and the term a posteriori describes knowledge developed through observation and experience. What is an example of ethics is best described as discovered in an a priori manner? (Points : 5)
Question 1.1. (TCOs 1, 2, 3, 7) In support of TCO #7 and in the Week 7 discussions, you developed and placed into the threaded discussions your personalized ethics statement of what has become important to you in the practice of ethics as you have practiced ethics during the course. Your first task in this question is to briefly present that personalized statement in just a few sentences before continuing with the question. Much of the rest of the exam will involve your working with that personalized statement through brief applications and cases.
Use your ethical philosophy to solve the following ethical situation. Explain how your philosophy helped you make your decision.
Anticipating the possibility that their soldiers may one day be captured by the enemy, some modern armies include in their basic training exposure to simulated yet intimidating torture techniques. That is, they subject their own troops to mild forms of simulated torture in order that they may learn how to resist torture and not divulge the plans and classified information that they know. Some other armies actually train through experience of torture.
Is this practice justifiable ethically? If you believe it is justifiable only under certain conditions, specify the conditions. Explain and defend your position, and then explain how your ethical philosophy helped you come to this conclusion. (Points : 30)
2. (TCOs 1, 2, 7) Analyze the following ethical situation using YOUR ethical philosophy. Read the situation and then in your answer, explain why this is an ethical situation, what the “issues” are, and how an “ethical” person would resolve them. Explain how YOUR ethical philosophy statement has helped you read a conclusion about how to resolve or analyze this situation.
Construction companies must usually engage in competitive bidding for their contracts. This practice demands that they anticipate every material and labor cost months and even years ahead and commit themselves to complete a project for a specified amount of money. A mistake in calculating or a failure to anticipate a significant increase in prices can bankrupt a company.
Consider the situation of the combination of the unexpected increase in lumber prices due to the war in Iraq and Afghanistan with multiple hurricanes in the United States in the past few years.
1. Would it be ethical for a company who had won a bid for a construction job before the increase in lumber prices, to use substandard materials in order to offset the increase in lumber prices after the fact?
2. Would it be ethical for a customer to hold the contractor to the original bid after unplanned and unprecedented lumber price increases occur, knowing it will cause the contractor to go bankrupt, or do the job at a huge loss?
3. How would your answer to #2 change if your customer was Donald Trump or a community pantry feeding program for the homeless. Explain. (Points : 30)
3. (TCOs 1, 7, 9) How do you feel Immanuel Kant would have solved the above ethical situation differently or the same as you did using your philosophy? Please explain the reasons for the similarities or differences. (Points : 40)
4. (TCOs 1, 2, 4, 9) Regina is chairperson of her city’s United Fund campaign. In her annual preparations meeting with her staff of canvassers, she gives this advice: “Hit the business places first. Don’t approach anyone who is walking alone in a hall or working alone in a closed office. Look for two or more people standing together or working side by side. Try to make them compete with each other in generous giving. Capitalize on their desire to show off and outdo the next person.” She then states that the canvasser who raises the most money of all will be awarded with a 5% cut of the total amount that canvasser raises. Her approach pays off and the United Fund raises the most money ever.
Tell what ethical philosophy Regina is using, if any.
Now, use your ethical philosophy to analyze the situation. Explain how, using your philosophy, you would have solved this situation either the same way as the character in the situation did, or differently. Why? (Points : 30)
5. (TCOs 5, 6) You work for a grocery store and a new manager is hired to oversee your department. He comes into your department (the butcher shop) and explains to you that for the past 6 months, your department has been losing money for the store because of the waste and spoilage going on from having to discard unsold meat and poultry. He tells you that from now on, he wants you to package ground meat in smaller, more compact packages, with older meat on the bottom of the package (so it is not visible to the customer) and the fresher meat on the top, where it is visible to the customers. In this way, you can move more of the older meat and still receive the top dollar for it. As he leaves the department where you were having the discussion, he turns and says, “And by the way, one more month of losses like we had last month from this department, and you can kiss your job goodbye.”
Will you repackage the meat in the way he requested?
Why or why not? Explain what ethical analysis you used to come to this conclusion. (Points : 30)
6. (TCOs 6, 8) Analyze your answer above using the Front Page of the Newspaper ethical dilemma resolution model. Show your steps. (Points : 40)
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