effect on mass tourism to local community in ibiza

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Chapter 3: Methodology and Ethics

The study will make use of primary data, which is the data gathered by the researcher using surveys. The information collected will be used solely for the present study.

3.1 Questionnaire survey

A questionnaire comprises of several questions representing the subject being investigated. The explanation of a satisfactory questionnaire is important because the questionnaire supplies all the necessary information required to develop the research (Silverman 2011). The main features of a successful questionnaire include:

  • Objectivity- the researcher should not influence the outcomes
  • Clarity- it is essential to use simple and understandable language to evade mistakes, ambiguities and delays
  • Precision- the questions must be well framed to prevent ambiguities and get just the required answer- Courtesy- questions that may bother the interviewee should be avoided
  • Precise- it is always beneficial to reduce the length of the questionnaire and avoid long questions, repetitions to prevent monotony and fatigue

3.2 The Study Sample

The survey will be conducted through Facebook for a week in June 2014. The focus of the survey was on areas that exhibit high tourist concentration during summer- Cala de Sant Vicent. The areas were convenient to request both locals and foreigners to participate in the study and get the sample.

3.2.1 Questionnaire design

The researcher designed a questionnaire that incorporated all the qualities mentioned in 3.2. As already mentioned, to adequately analyze the social and cultural effects of mass tourism. A set of questionnaires were developed for the local residents.

The researcher was interested in knowing their attitudes, feelings, initiatives and perceptions toward the tourism sector and tourists. The purpose of collecting this information was to evaluate the effects of mass tourism on the local residents. The questionnaire was categorized into two parts- motivation to tourism and attitude toward tourism. Prior to distributing the questionnaires to the respondents, the researcher introduced himself to the participants and elaborated on the purpose of the survey. The questionnaire questions mainly comprised of quick to answer and easy to analyze questions. Closed ended questions were used in the questionnaires because it allows the researcher to measure the answers at a later date. However, they one main limitation is that the information gathered is quite restricted and in some cases omitted.

3.2.2 Limitations

The major limitation of the study was in relation to language. Questionnaires were designed in English, which caused some challenges when surveying locals who mainly speak Spanish. Similarly, individuals in holidays often do not like to participate in the study. With regard to local residents working in the Ibiza tourism industry, they were equally indisposed to participate in the study. They noted that they were fatigued by frequent questionnaires. However, the researcher successfully secured the cooperation of many of them after convincing them that the survey was for her personal study and will not form part of publicized statistics.

3.2.3 Pre-testing of Questionnaire

The questionnaire was pre-tested with the help of several students prior to the main survey in Ibiza. The main aim for pre-testing was to identify any problems that may arise during the survey and rectify them in advance. It was also aimed at ensuring that respondents had complete understanding of all the questions, and also to note any ambiguous and confusing questions. As expected, the researcher indentified several errors in the course of pre-testing and corrected them.

3.3. Analysis

The research is conducted using a descriptive method in order to demonstrate the attitudes and feelings for locals. The data gathered from the survey was analyzed using Microsoft Excel. The results have been presented by use of graphics. In summary, chapter 3 has offered the methodology adopted in this study, explaining the sampling strategy employed, design of the questionnaire, collection of data and limitations.

 

 

reference

Silverman, D. 2011, Interpreting Qualitative Data, Sage Publication Ltd, London.

Chapter 2: Literature Review

The literature review evaluates the effects of mass tourism to the local communities. In particular, the paper evaluates the economic and social-cultural effects from the various perspectives of mass tourism development with the objective of exposing the effects from the perspective of all stakeholders.

2.1 Economic Effects

Tourism impacts positively on the economies of destinations they visit. It is because of this that creation of tourist facilities and opportunities for recreation have often been viewed as a positive contributor to the balance of payment for the nation as a whole (Espejo 2009, p. 38). In addition, tourism appears to be effective compared to other industries in employment creation and income generation. International tourism is an intangible export and generates a flow of foreign currency that directly contributes to the balance of payment. The foreign exchange inflow influences the economy of the destination country. This flow has an effect results in business profitability, government profits, household income, and employment (Aguil’o Perez & Juaneda 2000, p. 9). Domestic tourism equally has economic impact on the host regions of a nation. Singh, Timothy and Dowling (2003, p. 26) assert that while international tourism generates foreign currency inflow into a country, domestic tourism serves to redistribute the local currency within the boundaries of a nation.  One of the major consequences of mass tourism is the over reliance on particular tourist destinations such as Ibiza on tourism. This is unsustainable because the tourism industry is highly volatile and is exposed to internal and external changes such as change in fashions, price changes, global recession, and political crisis (Singh et al. 2003, p. 41). Some tourist destinations have exposed themselves to vulnerabilities associated with changes in tourist demand. Because of their overreliance on the tourism sector, all their resources have been adapted to tourism without taking into account that some variable such as the political climate, war on terror, and the economy are important factors that tourists consider when selecting destination. It is evident that unstable conditions in a particular country, adversely affects its tourism sector. According to Garín (2007, p. 34), the case of Ibiza is an example of overreliance on tourism, particularly Germany tourists. In the last few years, the volume of Germany tourists coming to Ibiza has declined because of the slowed growth of the Germany economy, which has been reflected in reduced number of tourists visiting Ibiza (Garín, 2007, p. 34). This poses a significant problem because Ibizas economy is in the hands of external companies and international players such as air companies and large tour operators (Capo, Font and Nadal, 2007, p. 617). The tourism sector in Spain faces a number of problems including seasonal demand and spatial concentration reflected in hotel occupancy rates in many regions. Many hotels are forced to close shops during offseason while others remain open to capture the highest revenue possible. A large number of the tourists visit Ibiza to take pleasure in water activities and sun, during the low season, up to 60% of the destination hotels are closed. The effect of this seasonality is quite severe on employment opportunities, with unemployment levels varying by more than 26 points from August to December. The economic effect on Balearic Islands has been significant, making Achipelago the most successful tourist region in Spain. It is therefore worth concluding that tourism is a tool for economic change in regional economic structures and has the potential to benefit job creation and production (Richards 2000, p. 26).

2.2 Physical Impacts

Tourism development changes and alters the environment. Environment refers to fauna, land, air, and water, but it also includes culture and people (Buckley, 2004, p. 34). Tourism development requires established infrastructure, in addition to hotel accommodation and other facilities relevant to the tourism sector. In some destinations, airfields and highways have been developed to boost tourism, however, local communities rarely benefit from these developments (Andereck et al., 2005, p. 26). Development of facilities and infrastructure requires substantial land sizes, resulting in increased land prices in tourist destinations. One main feature of the tourism sector in Spain is the high geographical concentration and the unplanned construction along the Spanish coastline. Many big hotels have been set up along the coastline with private beaches, which has destroyed the environment and caused problems in access. In addition, some tourist destinations have limited natural resources, and each summer destinations such as Seville and Palma de Majorca face difficulties in meeting the high demand for water. Substantial demographic changes have also occurred in regions of mass tourism that have recorded above average population growth rates from 1960 to 1991. The increased population has been a result of immigration. Tourists coming to Spain are mainly from Germany and Britain, who together account for the largest percentage of tourist visits (Garín 2007, p. 34). With increased population, tourist destinations have witnessed an increase in home constructions both for local inhabitants and for residential tourism (Buckley 2004, p. 405). One of the consequences of demographic change is the resulting change in the identity and image of a region, in addition to the dilution of its cultural heritage (Buckley 2004, p. 407). The challenge facing the tourism industry lies in ascertaining whether the industry provides optimum use of the available resources or not. The seasonal nature of tourism in the Balearic region coupled with the fast growth of tourism has resulted in degraded environmental quality of the destination and reduced natural reserves.

2.3 Cultural and Social and Impacts

These are tourism effects that alter social behavior, systems, security levels, family ties, shared lifestyles, moral conduct, community organization, cultural ceremonies and language. The cultural and social impacts affect the people in the host communities as a result of their indirect and direct interactions with the tourists. To understand the cultural and social effects of mass tourism it is important to adopt various perspectives (O’Reilly 2003, p. 58).

  • The tourist perspective, which deals with issues related to demand for tourist services as well as the tourists` expectations, feelings, opinions, and motivations.
  • The host perspective, which deals with aspects related to the provision of tourist services that concern local residents of the tourist destination areas and the local tourist industry, is organized.
  • The relationship perspective that deals with interactions between the hosts and the tourists, and the effects arising from the interactions.

Unlike the economic effects, the cultural and social effects are often discussed negatively in literature. The effects of mass tourism on local communities are not always negative, which gives room to enhance understanding between people from different cultures and nationalities, and allows the possibility of successful intercultural ties (Bakhat & Rossell’o 2011, p. 49).  The relationships between hosts and tourists is determined the unique characteristics of individuals or groups that are interacting and the conditions under which the interaction happens. Interactions happen in three separate contexts. The first one is when the tourists buys some goods or service from the local host, where the host and the tourist find themselves next to each other, for instance during a live band performance where the two parties come face to face with each other with the intention of exchanging ideas or information. In this context, tourism is a method for enhancing international understanding. In some types of mass tourism, there is no need for direct contact, and only the sight of tourists and how they behave is sufficient to induce behavioral changes on local hosts (Bakhat & Rossell’o 2011, p. 50). Under mass tourism, the tourists are itinerant, they come to relax, spend freely, enjoy leisure and absorb the experience of being in a different location. On the contrary, the host is immobile if he or she is employed in the tourism sector and spend more of his or her time catering to the visitors’ needs and desires. The social impacts of tourism can be defined as the changes in the quality of life for residents in a particular tourist destination.

The nature of locals tourist interaction has three dimensions, which are interaction between people, attitudes, and perceptions. The attitudes of the hosts may quickly become antagonistic if there is uncontrolled development of services and facilities to meet the tourists` demands. Hosts may even begin to fear tourists if the carrying capacity of their environment reaches or exceeds its point of saturation. However, provided the economic impacts remain positive, pressure from visitors is often accepted and welcomed by the host communities. However, if the local community considers that the limit has already been surpassed; negative characteristics of discontent are likely to emerge (Font 2000, p. 61). A number of factors aggravate feelings of resentment by locals against tourists and they arise from various conditions (Font 2000, p. 61).

The first condition is the physical availability of tourists in a particular destination area, particularly if their number is proportionately large. Local hosts often resent the fact that they share services and facilities with tourists who bring about the problem of congestion. It is clear that where tourists are concentrated in large numbers, there is always a problem of congestions in the available facilities and services. Dispersing visitors can reduce tourists’ concentration such that the ratio of visitors to hosts is reduced without reducing the number of arriving tourists. The second condition is the demonstration effect, where local residents often dislike the visible economic superiority of tourists and as a result, they attempt to emulate their behavior. The inception of foreign cultures and ideologies into communities exposed to tourists highlights the foreign domination of the tourism industry. In addition, local residents may develop an inferiority complex that initiates a process of imitation. The majority of research studies concur that tourism can alter local behavior and divide residents in the destination areas. The third condition is foreign employment and ownership. The employment of foreigners in management and professional positions with attractive pay and bigger responsibilities compared to those of the locals equally causes resentment. The economic and social effects of tourism and eventually on culture are significant (Fusco Girard & Nijkamp 2009, p. 16).

2.4 Tourism Benefits and costs

Generally, tourists are often viewed as a means for stimulating regional economic development and revive growth in a destination. However, these benefits often go outside the community due to the numerous factors that affect the industry and its prosperity. Tourism does not generate greater prosperity always. For instance, the contribution of the tourism sector in terms of job creation is not often as good as desired because employees in the sector are often poorly trained, underpaid, and employed on a part-time basis. Even if the sector creates new job opportunities in the destination area, and helps the host community to retain community members who would have otherwise migrated away, the sector also attracts foreign expatriates who are searching for employment opportunities or economic opportunities to create their own businesses. Two distinct groups of individuals increase the costs and benefits of tourism. On one hand, the tourists themselves who enjoy the benefits of their travel but also have to incur the costs associated with going for holiday. On the other hand, the local population in the host destination often extracts benefits from tourists but also bear different types of costs (Espejo 2009, p. 65).

The effect of mass tourism on local communities presents both costs and benefits: increased wealth creation, more employment opportunities and increased land value. However, the host community must agree to live under a lower quality of life than they would otherwise have lived if there were no tourists. They may compensate for the reduced quality of life through expenditures from tourists for which taxes are paid (Espejo 2009, p.66). Local and state governments have to develop infrastructure, and private investors are accorded tax breaks, low cost land and other incentives to develop the area into a tourist attraction, and local land owners are advised to sell off their lands for tourist development. The state increases the tax to cater for infrastructural development needed to attract tourists and the tourist sector and also to supply important services such as water and sanitation. Mass tourism inflates land prices. The growth of tourism destination exerts additional pressure on the demand for land, forcing the price for land to increase (Bakhat & Rossell’o 2011, p. 437). Some parts of Spain such as the Mediterranean littoral were literally colonized by retirees from northern Europe who purchased their second homes in Spain, and gradually foreign communities were developed in the Spanish territory, particularly in Costa del Sol and the Balearics (Rodr’iguez, Fern’, ez-Mayoralas & Rojo 2004, p. 98). As a matter of fact, tourism increases the general cost living in the tourist destination forcing the local residents to move away from the area as they can no longer afford to live there. This implies that mass tourism has the potential to cause poverty and eventually displace indigenous communities that are replaced by immigration of rich retirees and foreigners.

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

List of References

Aguil’o Perez, E & Juaneda, S 2000, Tourist expenditure for mass tourism markets, Annals of Tourism Research, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 624-637.

Andereck, K, Valentine, K, Knopf, R & Vogt, C 2005, Residents’ perceptions of community tourism impacts, Annals of tourism research, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 1056-1076.

Bakhat, M & Rossell’o, J 2011, Estimation of tourism-induced electricity consumption: The case study of Balearics Islands, Spain, Energy economics, vol. 33, no.3, pp. 437-444.

Buckley, R 2004, Environmental impacts of ecotourism, CABI Pub, Wallingford.

Capo, J, Font, A & Nadal, J 2007, Dutch disease in tourism economies: Evidence from the Balearics and the Canary Islands, Journal of Sustainable Tourism, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 615-627.

Espejo, R 2009, What is the impact of tourism? Greenhaven Press, Detroit.

Font, A 2000, Mass tourism and the demand for protected natural areas: a travel cost approach, Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 97-116.

Fusco Girard, L & Nijkamp, P 2009, Cultural tourism and sustainable local development, Ashgate, Farnham.

Garín, T 2007,  German demand for tourism in Spain, Tourism Management, vol. 28, pp, 12–22.

O’Reilly, K 2003, ‘When is a tourist? The Articulation of Tourism and Migration in Spain’s Costa del Sol’, Tourist Studies, vol. 3, no. 3, pp.301-317.

Richards, G 2000, Tourism and Culture, Springer, pp.165-178.

Rodr’iguez, V., Fern’, ez-Mayoralas, G. and Rojo, F 2004, ‘International retirement migration: Retired Europeans living on the Costa del Sol, Spain’ Population Review, vol. 43, no.1, pp.1-36.

Singh, S., Timothy, D. and Dowling, R 2003, Tourism in destination communities, Oxon, UK: Cabi Pub.

Chapter 2: Literature Review

The literature review evaluates the effects of mass tourism to the local communities. In particular, the paper evaluates the economic and social-cultural effects from the various perspectives of mass tourism development with the objective of exposing the effects from the perspective of all stakeholders.

2.1 Economic Effects

Tourism impacts positively on the economies of destinations they visit. It is because of this that creation of tourist facilities and opportunities for recreation have often been viewed as a positive contributor to the balance of payment for the nation as a whole (Espejo 2009, p. 38). In addition, tourism appears to be effective compared to other industries in employment creation and income generation. International tourism is an intangible export and generates a flow of foreign currency that directly contributes to the balance of payment. The foreign exchange inflow influences the economy of the destination country. This flow has an effect results in business profitability, government profits, household income, and employment (Aguil’o Perez & Juaneda 2000, p. 9). Domestic tourism equally has economic impact on the host regions of a nation. Singh, Timothy and Dowling (2003, p. 26) assert that while international tourism generates foreign currency inflow into a country, domestic tourism serves to redistribute the local currency within the boundaries of a nation.  One of the major consequences of mass tourism is the over reliance on particular tourist destinations such as Ibiza on tourism. This is unsustainable because the tourism industry is highly volatile and is exposed to internal and external changes such as change in fashions, price changes, global recession, and political crisis (Singh et al. 2003, p. 41). Some tourist destinations have exposed themselves to vulnerabilities associated with changes in tourist demand. Because of their overreliance on the tourism sector, all their resources have been adapted to tourism without taking into account that some variable such as the political climate, war on terror, and the economy are important factors that tourists consider when selecting destination. It is evident that unstable conditions in a particular country, adversely affects its tourism sector. According to Garín (2007, p. 34), the case of Ibiza is an example of overreliance on tourism, particularly Germany tourists. In the last few years, the volume of Germany tourists coming to Ibiza has declined because of the slowed growth of the Germany economy, which has been reflected in reduced number of tourists visiting Ibiza (Garín, 2007, p. 34). This poses a significant problem because Ibizas economy is in the hands of external companies and international players such as air companies and large tour operators (Capo, Font and Nadal, 2007, p. 617). The tourism sector in Spain faces a number of problems including seasonal demand and spatial concentration reflected in hotel occupancy rates in many regions. Many hotels are forced to close shops during offseason while others remain open to capture the highest revenue possible. A large number of the tourists visit Ibiza to take pleasure in water activities and sun, during the low season, up to 60% of the destination hotels are closed. The effect of this seasonality is quite severe on employment opportunities, with unemployment levels varying by more than 26 points from August to December. The economic effect on Balearic Islands has been significant, making Achipelago the most successful tourist region in Spain. It is therefore worth concluding that tourism is a tool for economic change in regional economic structures and has the potential to benefit job creation and production (Richards 2000, p. 26).

2.2 Physical Impacts

Tourism development changes and alters the environment. Environment refers to fauna, land, air, and water, but it also includes culture and people (Buckley, 2004, p. 34). Tourism development requires established infrastructure, in addition to hotel accommodation and other facilities relevant to the tourism sector. In some destinations, airfields and highways have been developed to boost tourism, however, local communities rarely benefit from these developments (Andereck et al., 2005, p. 26). Development of facilities and infrastructure requires substantial land sizes, resulting in increased land prices in tourist destinations. One main feature of the tourism sector in Spain is the high geographical concentration and the unplanned construction along the Spanish coastline. Many big hotels have been set up along the coastline with private beaches, which has destroyed the environment and caused problems in access. In addition, some tourist destinations have limited natural resources, and each summer destinations such as Seville and Palma de Majorca face difficulties in meeting the high demand for water. Substantial demographic changes have also occurred in regions of mass tourism that have recorded above average population growth rates from 1960 to 1991. The increased population has been a result of immigration. Tourists coming to Spain are mainly from Germany and Britain, who together account for the largest percentage of tourist visits (Garín 2007, p. 34). With increased population, tourist destinations have witnessed an increase in home constructions both for local inhabitants and for residential tourism (Buckley 2004, p. 405). One of the consequences of demographic change is the resulting change in the identity and image of a region, in addition to the dilution of its cultural heritage (Buckley 2004, p. 407). The challenge facing the tourism industry lies in ascertaining whether the industry provides optimum use of the available resources or not. The seasonal nature of tourism in the Balearic region coupled with the fast growth of tourism has resulted in degraded environmental quality of the destination and reduced natural reserves.

2.3 Cultural and Social and Impacts

These are tourism effects that alter social behavior, systems, security levels, family ties, shared lifestyles, moral conduct, community organization, cultural ceremonies and language. The cultural and social impacts affect the people in the host communities as a result of their indirect and direct interactions with the tourists. To understand the cultural and social effects of mass tourism it is important to adopt various perspectives (O’Reilly 2003, p. 58).

  • The tourist perspective, which deals with issues related to demand for tourist services as well as the tourists` expectations, feelings, opinions, and motivations.
  • The host perspective, which deals with aspects related to the provision of tourist services that concern local residents of the tourist destination areas and the local tourist industry, is organized.
  • The relationship perspective that deals with interactions between the hosts and the tourists, and the effects arising from the interactions.

Unlike the economic effects, the cultural and social effects are often discussed negatively in literature. The effects of mass tourism on local communities are not always negative, which gives room to enhance understanding between people from different cultures and nationalities, and allows the possibility of successful intercultural ties (Bakhat & Rossell’o 2011, p. 49).  The relationships between hosts and tourists is determined the unique characteristics of individuals or groups that are interacting and the conditions under which the interaction happens. Interactions happen in three separate contexts. The first one is when the tourists buys some goods or service from the local host, where the host and the tourist find themselves next to each other, for instance during a live band performance where the two parties come face to face with each other with the intention of exchanging ideas or information. In this context, tourism is a method for enhancing international understanding. In some types of mass tourism, there is no need for direct contact, and only the sight of tourists and how they behave is sufficient to induce behavioral changes on local hosts (Bakhat & Rossell’o 2011, p. 50). Under mass tourism, the tourists are itinerant, they come to relax, spend freely, enjoy leisure and absorb the experience of being in a different location. On the contrary, the host is immobile if he or she is employed in the tourism sector and spend more of his or her time catering to the visitors’ needs and desires. The social impacts of tourism can be defined as the changes in the quality of life for residents in a particular tourist destination.

The nature of locals tourist interaction has three dimensions, which are interaction between people, attitudes, and perceptions. The attitudes of the hosts may quickly become antagonistic if there is uncontrolled development of services and facilities to meet the tourists` demands. Hosts may even begin to fear tourists if the carrying capacity of their environment reaches or exceeds its point of saturation. However, provided the economic impacts remain positive, pressure from visitors is often accepted and welcomed by the host communities. However, if the local community considers that the limit has already been surpassed; negative characteristics of discontent are likely to emerge (Font 2000, p. 61). A number of factors aggravate feelings of resentment by locals against tourists and they arise from various conditions (Font 2000, p. 61).

The first condition is the physical availability of tourists in a particular destination area, particularly if their number is proportionately large. Local hosts often resent the fact that they share services and facilities with tourists who bring about the problem of congestion. It is clear that where tourists are concentrated in large numbers, there is always a problem of congestions in the available facilities and services. Dispersing visitors can reduce tourists’ concentration such that the ratio of visitors to hosts is reduced without reducing the number of arriving tourists. The second condition is the demonstration effect, where local residents often dislike the visible economic superiority of tourists and as a result, they attempt to emulate their behavior. The inception of foreign cultures and ideologies into communities exposed to tourists highlights the foreign domination of the tourism industry. In addition, local residents may develop an inferiority complex that initiates a process of imitation. The majority of research studies concur that tourism can alter local behavior and divide residents in the destination areas. The third condition is foreign employment and ownership. The employment of foreigners in management and professional positions with attractive pay and bigger responsibilities compared to those of the locals equally causes resentment. The economic and social effects of tourism and eventually on culture are significant (Fusco Girard & Nijkamp 2009, p. 16).

2.4 Tourism Benefits and costs

Generally, tourists are often viewed as a means for stimulating regional economic development and revive growth in a destination. However, these benefits often go outside the community due to the numerous factors that affect the industry and its prosperity. Tourism does not generate greater prosperity always. For instance, the contribution of the tourism sector in terms of job creation is not often as good as desired because employees in the sector are often poorly trained, underpaid, and employed on a part-time basis. Even if the sector creates new job opportunities in the destination area, and helps the host community to retain community members who would have otherwise migrated away, the sector also attracts foreign expatriates who are searching for employment opportunities or economic opportunities to create their own businesses. Two distinct groups of individuals increase the costs and benefits of tourism. On one hand, the tourists themselves who enjoy the benefits of their travel but also have to incur the costs associated with going for holiday. On the other hand, the local population in the host destination often extracts benefits from tourists but also bear different types of costs (Espejo 2009, p. 65).

The effect of mass tourism on local communities presents both costs and benefits: increased wealth creation, more employment opportunities and increased land value. However, the host community must agree to live under a lower quality of life than they would otherwise have lived if there were no tourists. They may compensate for the reduced quality of life through expenditures from tourists for which taxes are paid (Espejo 2009, p.66). Local and state governments have to develop infrastructure, and private investors are accorded tax breaks, low cost land and other incentives to develop the area into a tourist attraction, and local land owners are advised to sell off their lands for tourist development. The state increases the tax to cater for infrastructural development needed to attract tourists and the tourist sector and also to supply important services such as water and sanitation. Mass tourism inflates land prices. The growth of tourism destination exerts additional pressure on the demand for land, forcing the price for land to increase (Bakhat & Rossell’o 2011, p. 437). Some parts of Spain such as the Mediterranean littoral were literally colonized by retirees from northern Europe who purchased their second homes in Spain, and gradually foreign communities were developed in the Spanish territory, particularly in Costa del Sol and the Balearics (Rodr’iguez, Fern’, ez-Mayoralas & Rojo 2004, p. 98). As a matter of fact, tourism increases the general cost living in the tourist destination forcing the local residents to move away from the area as they can no longer afford to live there. This implies that mass tourism has the potential to cause poverty and eventually displace indigenous communities that are replaced by immigration of rich retirees and foreigners.

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

List of References

Aguil’o Perez, E & Juaneda, S 2000, Tourist expenditure for mass tourism markets, Annals of Tourism Research, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 624-637.

Andereck, K, Valentine, K, Knopf, R & Vogt, C 2005, Residents’ perceptions of community tourism impacts, Annals of tourism research, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 1056-1076.

Bakhat, M & Rossell’o, J 2011, Estimation of tourism-induced electricity consumption: The case study of Balearics Islands, Spain, Energy economics, vol. 33, no.3, pp. 437-444.

Buckley, R 2004, Environmental impacts of ecotourism, CABI Pub, Wallingford.

Capo, J, Font, A & Nadal, J 2007, Dutch disease in tourism economies: Evidence from the Balearics and the Canary Islands, Journal of Sustainable Tourism, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 615-627.

Espejo, R 2009, What is the impact of tourism? Greenhaven Press, Detroit.

Font, A 2000, Mass tourism and the demand for protected natural areas: a travel cost approach, Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 97-116.

Fusco Girard, L & Nijkamp, P 2009, Cultural tourism and sustainable local development, Ashgate, Farnham.

Garín, T 2007,  German demand for tourism in Spain, Tourism Management, vol. 28, pp, 12–22.

O’Reilly, K 2003, ‘When is a tourist? The Articulation of Tourism and Migration in Spain’s Costa del Sol’, Tourist Studies, vol. 3, no. 3, pp.301-317.

Richards, G 2000, Tourism and Culture, Springer, pp.165-178.

Rodr’iguez, V., Fern’, ez-Mayoralas, G. and Rojo, F 2004, ‘International retirement migration: Retired Europeans living on the Costa del Sol, Spain’ Population Review, vol. 43, no.1, pp.1-36.

Singh, S., Timothy, D. and Dowling, R 2003, Tourism in destination communities, Oxon, UK: Cabi Pub.