Crew Resource Management

Order Details;

You are required to write an essay using the following title:

Identify an aircraft accident or event where CRM and/or communication has been the causal factor (200 words)

You can choose an accident like the one at Tenerife where bad CRM and power gradient in the cockpit led to the terrific accident or you can choose one where good CRM/communication has been the reason that prevented a tragedy like the Al Haynes crippled aircraft incident.  Remember you need an Introduction, body of the essay and conclusion.  The introduction is worth 5% of the overall mark and the conclusion 10%.  You will also get marks for correct referencing thought the essay and in the reference list using APA style (5%) and you will get marked for style and layout (5%).

Remember you need a minimum of 6 academic references which can be found by research in the library or on  I am looking for a good analytical essay that requires you to use authors and researchers to support the opinions you give.  It is due in on December 10th (Week 13)

I will go through the essay on an on-line tutorial next week so look out for that


Introduction – 200 words – 2%

In the introduction you tell the reader what to expect in the essay, what you are going to look at but not the result.  You can start with a quote if you like:

CRM emerged as a result of accident analysis (e.g. Tenerife air disaster) which showed that human factors relating to leadership, problem solving, communication, team working and stress management were contributing to near misses and accidents.  (Flin, O’Connor, Mearns & Gordon, 1998)

Body – 1500 words – 10%

You need to explore CRM and communication in general.  Start with the accident you have chosen.  Briefly describe the accident.  Now go onto identify the elements of the accident where CRM or communication was an issue.  In the Tenerife accident you could have picked out elements like:

Cockpit gradient being too high where the co-pilot was afraid to talk to the Captain

The Captain’s autocratic attitude where he wouldn’t listen to anyone else

The language barrier of the ATC at Tenerife effected communication

The terminology for departure which has now been changed

The difference between the cockpit communication of the Pan Am crew to that of the KLM crew

Communication and CRM with the cabin crew which was poor

Communication of other aircraft which rendered some speech ineligible (all talking at same time)

You could say what has been done since to improve CRM in that airline – in this instance it started the first KLM Human Factors training course


In the Al Haynes accident – this was an example of good CRM/communication where all the flight crew worked together to solve a problem

Conclusion – 300 words – 3%

In this you need to sum up what you have said in your essay and give some thoughts on improvement or as to why CRM was good and project into the future.  Eg:  The Human Factors CRM course started at KLM because of the Tenerife incident resulted in HF and CRM training starting worldwide.  Talk about how CRM is taught now (including Flight Attendants as well as pilots) and how it has advanced.  How has safety improved with it?

Research (3%) – you need at least 6 references.  If you use Wikipedia do not cite it but look at the end where there are many references for you to look at.  Below is an example of a reference.  APA style referencing please

Research – googlescholar


Flin, R., O’Connor, P., Mearns, K., & Gordon, R. (1998, January). Crew Resource Management for Offshore Teams: Lessons from Aviation. In SPE International Conference on Health Safety and Environment in Oil and Gas Exploration and Production. Society of Petroleum Engineers.


Overall style and presentation will earn the other 2 %