Creating a Program ; Drug Addiction in Memphis
This the outline of the proposal
Added on 24.11.2014 14:56
Added on 24.11.2014 14:57
Here is the Document
Outline of Process of Program Design
1. Problem Analysis & Target Identification
a. Problem identification: What is the problem?
b. Target population (characteristics & number): Who is impacted by the problem—who would be served by your proposed program?
c. Describe the characteristics & number of those who would be served
2. Identification of Relevant Theory & Research
a. Identify a theoretical foundation from which to address the problem by citing at least 1 theory and associated theorist(s)
b. Explain how this theoretical approach is best-suited for the problem
3. Strategy & Objectives: Program Hypotheses & Variables
a. Statement of condition (What IS?)
b. Statement of social problem (What SHOULD be? Why is condition a problem? 9 questions to ask: pp. 45-49 )
iii. Justification for action
c. Needs Assessment-(How to get from what IS to what SHOULD be? Why does the problem exist (probably more than 1 reason)? How many people are affected (numbers may vary by reason)?
i. Precise definition of problem (Nature of the problem- see 3.b. above)
ii. Extent of the problem/Assessing need
1. Normative need? Quantitative-estimation, existing studies. For the program that you propose, is there a way to determine “normative need” (are there standards for recognizing need)?
2. Perceived need? Qualitative-exploratory. For the program that you propose, is there a way to determine what the members of the potential target population perceive their needs to be?
3. Expressed need? Quantitative-service stats. For the program that you propose, is there a way to determine what percentage of the potential target population actually seeks services and what percentage are actually served (expressed need)?
4. Relative need? For the program that you propose, is there a way to determine whether the program serves a smaller or larger proportion of the needy target population than similar programs in other, comparable communities (relative need)?
iii. Targets of intervention
1. Stakeholders, direct, indirect
2. Risk, need, demand, use
iv. Existing programs and services & problems with them
d. Program Hypotheses: Provide at least 1 “if-then” statement that identifies the underlying assumptions about the target population and the expected effects of the program (see Table 7.1, p. 120)
i. Primary (global), secondary (more specific), or tertiary (targets impact of the problem rather than the problem itself) prevention?
ii. Hypotheses of etiology (based on the nature of the problem; identifies cause-effect relationships)
iii. Working intervention hypotheses (strategies to address the problem; how will causes be addressed?)
i. Identify one or more independent variables (services provided)
ii. Identify the dependent variable (expected long-term result of services)
iii. Identify any intervening variables (intermediate or short-term results of services)
iv. Problems & consequences (p. 109)
4. Strategy & Objectives: Goals & Objectives
a. Identify a realistic goal (ultimate desired aim) for the program (If the program is successful, what will be achieved?)
i. Flows from mission of the agency
ii. Provides a sense of direction for the program; framework for objectives
b. Identify multiple relevant outcomes (objectives) that will assist the program in reaching the goal (What specific things will help the program achieve its goal(s)?)
i. Outcome objectives: expectations of the program, developed FIRST
1. Clear, action oriented, time-limited (initial, intermediate, longer-term), target specified, specify changes/results from activities, be measurable, specify responsibility
ii. Process objectives: means to be used to obtain the outcome objective
1. Specify means to achieve outcome objectives & processes that must be completed and/or products produced in order for the program to be implemented & monitored
2. Similar to outcome objectives in requirements
iii. Activities: specific realistic steps to be taken within each of the process objectives to accomplish the outcome objective and ultimately, the goal.
1. Clear, time limited, measurable, specify responsibility
5. Program Design
a. Inputs (raw materials or resources, see pp.145-146)
b. Throughputs (procedures to carry out program; transform inputs into outputs & outcomes)
i. Service definition: clear statement of services (the “why”)
ii. Service tasks: activities to be performed (the “what”)
iii. Methods of intervention: forms of the service(s) (the “how”)
c. Outputs (direct results of program activities)
i. Measured in units of service
1. Episode or contact units
2. Material units
3. Time units
ii. How much service was received (intermediate output)?
iii. Did client complete program (final output)?
d. Outcomes (measurable change in quality of life of client between entry into and exit from a program)
i. Intermediate outcomes: short-term results at completion of services
ii. Final Outcomes: long-term results at follow-up
iii. Measuring Outcomes
1. Numeric counts: a series of yes/no questions
2. Standardized measures: previously developed measuring instruments commonly used in that particular field
3. Level-of-functioning scales: measuring scale developed by staff and others familiar with the local at-risk population being served (specific to the program or service)
4. Client satisfaction: client rating of a particular service (not the program)
6. Data Requirements
a. What data should be collected to understand whether the program is being successful?
b. How can one know whether the program is cost effective?
7. Monitoring the Program/Using Information Technology
a. How could computer technology be used to monitor the program
b. What types of data could you collect and enter into the computer to better monitor the activities and success of the program?
c. What might you do with data that you collect so that it is used to make necessary modifications to improve program effectiveness and/or efficiency? How would you make sense of this information? How would you share it with those involved in the program’s service provision?
a. Estimate the costs associated with the program (line items, direct costs, indirect costs)
9. Program evaluation
a. How would you evaluate your program? How would you determine the effectiveness of your program in meeting program objectives and the program goal? What would mean that your program was “successful”? (see p. 23 in the yellow “Designing and managing programs” book for specific things to look for in the evaluation of a program)
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