part 1 :
Evaluation of an Argument through Analysis – In this assignment, you are required to show your abilities to analyze an argument with the purpose of evaluating its effectiveness.
Thus far in the course, we have explored the ways in which we read and analyze an argumentative text critically. Critical analysis of a text requires us to look for what the author claims (the main idea/thesis) and to closely examine how the author supports the claim as well as
to examine how the author presents the claim and evidence.
Write an essay in which you evaluate the effectiveness of Fallows’ “Viva Bilingualism” in
terms of its claims, evidence, and the presentation of the claims and evidence. Is the essay
persuasive? Why or why not? What elements of the argument make it persuasive and what do not? In order to complete this assignment successfully, you need first to analyze his essay
thoroughly by asking the following questions:
(1) What is the author’s main argument (thesis)? Is it clearly stated fairly early in the essay?
Does it reflect the purpose of the essay?
(2) What are his subsidiary claims? In other words, what are the points that he uses to support his main argument? Are they clear and valid? Are they related to the main argument?
(3) What is his purpose? Is it stated implicitly or explicitly? How well does he accomplish the
(1) What kind of audience does the author address? What are his assumptions on the audience?
What evidence can you point to in the text that supports your answer?
(2) Does he effectively address the audience? Does he close the gaps between you, as audience, and himself, as writer? Discuss places in the text where he has been successful and/or not successful.
(1) What kinds of evidence does the author use? (e.g., personal experiences; expert
(authoritative) testimony; factual references and examples including historical events,
hypothetical cases, and analogies; statistics and research)
(2) is the evidence sufficient, specific, relevant, reliable, not dated, not slanted, and convincing?
(3) Does the author address opposing views fairly and counter them successfully?
(1) What is the author’s tone? Is it neutral/biased, formal/informal, sincere, respectful, humorous, sarcastic, pessimistic, etc.? How do you know?
(2) how is the text organized? Is the organization effective?
Once you analyzed the text essay and made the evaluation, decide on several areas (points) about which you can write substantially in this assignment (Of course, you are not expected to
tackle every aspect of the essay in your paper.)
Then, write your introduction by summarizing Fallows’ essay accurately, beginning with its
thesis. After the summary, end the introduction with your own thesis statement that is focused and reflects the evaluative purpose of your essay. In your body paragraphs, address and explain
your points of evaluation by pointing to specifics, using, whenever relevant, such terminology as audience, purpose, claims, evidence, reasoning, credibility, opposing views, language, tone, and organization. In your conclusion, restate your focused thesis and write other insightful concluding remarks.
Organization of ideas within the paper as a whole: Readers expect a logical progression of
ideas as they proceed through a paper. This progression begins with a strong thesis statement and advances through a careful arrangement of each supporting point. Ask yourself why to choose to organize the evidence in this order. Moreover, ask yourself whether there are any ideas that don’t link back to the thesis. Work to try to either
incorporate these ideas into the rest of the paper or to edit them out.
Organization of ideas within a paragraph: Readers also expect a logical development of
ideas within each paragraph. Use the same techniques as above to think about the way you organized the ideas in each paragraph. Keep in mind that you might need to rearrange or eliminate ideas that seem out of place.
Audience awareness issues: When writers don’t have a clear sense of who they are writing
to/for, flow problems can crop up because of faulty assumptions about the audience. Writers who assume that readers don’t know anything about the topic might include too much
background information. The paper doesn’t “flow” because it’s slow and bogged down with
too much overly basic info. Or maybe writers assume that the audience knows more than
they do, and leave out critical connections between things because they figure that the reader
knows/grasps the connection already. To avoid or correct audience awareness problems,
think about who your intended readers are supposed to be and what assumptions you can validly make about that audience.
Transitions: In order for each separate paragraph of a paper to connect and create a unified argument, writers need to consciously link each paragraph to the ones immediately before and after. Most of the time, you probably had a clear sense of how you got from A to B, but
you may not have made that connection clear on paper. You can refer to the list of “transitional words and phrases” that you can use to make these connections more sophisticated.
Awkward sentences/phrasing: Sometimes “flow” can refer to a single sentence when the sentence structure is confusing. Read aloud your paper. You will often be able to “hear” that
the sentence doesn’t make sense, and can often fix the problem without any additional help.
Your sentences might be awkward since you were trying for a dense, complex sentence in order to “sound smart,” but remember a clear, concise sentence conveys the idea more effectively.
you would also have to read “Viva Bilingualism” be James Fallows to get a better understanding of what my essay about.
notes I’ve been given about my essay:
1-the hook is too general, you should either find a connection to the topic, or remove it and use another one.
2-the second and third point that I talked about are actually the same, so based on the part one instructions you need to talk about either audience or presentation.
3-give more detailed evidence when you mention something about the essay you are analyzing.