Assessment and Mitigation of Radioactive Material in the Environment

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Assessment and Mitigation of Radioactive Material in the Environment
All living organism exposes to naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM), However human added to the environment radioactive material called (TENORM) Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material, through different activities such as mining, production of phosphate fertilizers, drilling for oil and gas exploration and production, and disposal of radionuclides from medicine. Thus it is necessary to monitor ionizing radiation in the environment to protect the living organism from the risk of over doses.
In my paper I will discuss the different techniques that have been developed to assess the health risks and the concentrations of specific radionuclides of interest in air, water and soil. However, there is areas of special concern that I will explain them in regards to naturally occurring radionuclides, and to artificial enhancement of natural radioactivity. Then I will state the mitigation methods (chemical and biological) to reduce this risk to acceptable levels.
H. Al-Sulaiti, P.H. Regan, D.A. Bradley, D. Malain, T. Santawamaitre, A. Habib, M. Matthews, S. Bukhari, M. Al-Dosari. (2012). A preliminary report on the determination of natural radioactivity levels of the State of Qatar using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 619 (2010) 427–431.
I. Al-Qaradawi, M. Abdel-Moati, M. Al-Yafei, E. Al-Ansari, I. Al-Maslamani, E. Holm, I. Al-Shaikh, A. Mauring, Primal V. Pinto, D. Abdulmalik, A. Amir. (2015). Radioactivity levels in the marine environment along the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of Qatar. Marine Pollution Bulletin 90 (2015) 323–329
H. Al-Sulaiti, T. Nasir, K.S. Al Mugren, N. Alkhomashi, N. Al-Dahan, M. Al-Dosari, D.A. Bradley, S. Bukhari, M. Matthews , P.H. Regan, T. Santawamaitre, D. Malain, A. Habib. (2012). Determination of the natural radioactivity levels in north west of Dukhan, Qatar using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. Applied Radiation and Isotopes 70 (2012) 1344–1350 .
A.J. Francis, Y.V. Nancharaiah. (2015).
In situ and ex situ bioremediation  of radionuclide-contaminated soils
at nuclear and NORM sites. National Laboratory, Upton, NY, USA; Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang, South Korea; Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Kalpakkam, India.
D Crawford-Brown. (2011). Sources, Risks, and Mitigation of Radioactivity in Water, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
& 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.