Various treatment approaches have been implemented as aftercare plans for people who have just been released from a prison or a program. According to James (2011), these approaches aim at: providing safe and stable environment, taking care of peer influence, providing individual psychotherapy, training in self-management and other life skills and involving parents and other family members for the well-being of such individuals who have just been released from prison or certain programs. The aftercare plan program can be aimed at targeting three groups of people namely; non-violent offenders, violent offenders, and trauma victims.
Trauma occurs after traumatic events such as emotional, physical or sexual abuse, experiencing disasters, witnessing a crime or being a victim of a crime (Anthony et al., 1999). Anda et al. (2006) add that experiencing traumatic events and trauma-related effects during childhood is associated with antisocial behavior and delinquency in adolescence. Other causes of trauma may include the breakup of any meaningful relationship, serious disease or injuries, the death of loved ones and loss of precious property. When a child or a youth experiences trauma, a variety of repercussions can follow the individual into adulthood. The person experiences difficulties in academic achievement, social interactions and the development of the post-traumatic stress disorder.
Numerous researches have been done to establish the treatment of trauma victims. Most psychiatrists prefer cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in treating victims with trauma-related symptoms to other treatments based on medication and psychodynamic theories. The primary aim of CBT is to help change the thoughts and behaviors of the victim so as to lessen or the negative psychological symptoms (Taylor, 2006).
Multimodal trauma treatment is a treatment that falls under CBT. The therapy aims to adapt CBT strategies that are effective for adult by adjusting them for adolescents with disruptive behavioral orders. The treatment applies CBT techniques in psychoeducation, exposure to memories of the trauma, relaxation techniques, and cognitive restructuring.
The second CBT related trauma treatment is the trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy. The therapy addresses the symptoms of PTSD in children and adolescents. It comprises of many individual sessions conducted with the child and the parent or the caregiver, as well as joint sessions for both the child and the parent or the caregiver. For adolescents, they can undergo the sessions without having to be with the parent or caregiver. During these sessions, the traumatized individual receives psycho education, cognitive coping skills and relaxation skills. This trauma treatment therapy is considered the most appropriate for trauma victims. According to recent studies it has been established that the method is shown to reduce the symptoms of trauma effectively, even those occurring from multiple traumatic events.
Violent offenders are individuals who have been nominated on the grounds of violence against persons. The violence includes causing the body harm, sexual harassment, robbery and forced confinement. The violent offenders have depression and psychopathic behaviors. They have suicidal thoughts and homicidal ideations. They have personality disorders and cognitive disorders (Vernon Lewis Quinsey, 1988).Various types of treatment are available for violent offenders depending on the offense committed. Therefore, a violent offender should be given an appropriate aftercare plan depending on the offense that he or she had committed. Such treatments therapies include cognitive behavioral approaches such as impulse control problem solving and conflict resolution. The second treatment therapy is cognitive self-management that challenges their attitudes and thinking. Thirdly, are anger management programs that include relaxation and substance abuse education? Violent offenders should be cautiously handled. This is because most of them are familiar with the judicial system and imprisonment.
Non-violent offenders are individuals who are not involved in giving physical harm but can harm people around them from their conduct and their language. They are mostly those persons who take the law into their hands and are not responsible citizens. The crimes they commit include property crimes, bribery, and prostitution.
The most appropriate aftercare plan for non-violent offenders has proper psychological counseling sessions. The offenders can also be sent to jail to correct their offensive attitude. The non-violent offenders should be coached to increase their morals and be trained on the need to build a positive attitude towards the other people in the society.
Upon completion of the aftercare plan for the trauma victims, violent and non-violent offenders, since they have already learnt valuable life skills and self- management skills, they will be able to venture into income generating activities and employments that will help raise their standards and trigger acceptance by the society
The other way is implementing evidence-based practice through individual and group treatment. During this kind of treatment, the trauma victims, violent and non-violent offenders interact with people who have had a history of successful participation in group treatment. These individuals encourage and motivate the clients or the victim who helps them face life in a more aggressive way. For the individual sessions, the client meets with an individual therapist. The therapist helps the client in feelings check-in, mindfulness activity and goal activity from the session.
In conclusion, before applying any aftercare plans to trauma victims, violent and non-violent offenders should be tested for their feasibility, utility, and efficacy. Cognitive behavior therapies should be employed as opposed to punishment as the only way to overcome the problems caused by non-violent offenders. The use of a replicable-yet-adaptable treatment approach, adequate training, and supervision, and multi-source multi-measure assessment of outcomes should be employed
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