Advanced analytical technique

Paper , Order, or Assignment Requirements

Describe the principles of rocket immunoelectrophoresis. Mention how and why a precipitate forms and why the rocket-shaped precipitate stabilises at a particular length.


B2)         Please describe two approaches to studying cell proliferation with flow cytometry


B3)         Name the instrument that uses electrical current to infer an image of atoms. Draw a schematic diagram illustrating the main parts and briefly describe how it works.




  1. a) Describe and compare in detail the processes for radioactive decay by alpha, beta and positron emission using the isotopes 226Ra, 32P and 18F respectively as examples. Use suitable equations for each and comment on the emissions penetrating power and their interactions with matter in detail.



  1. b) The positron emitter isotope, 11C, was used for radiolabelling a tracer drug for human biodistribution studies by positron emission tomography. The safe effective dose for this drug has an activity of 2013 MBq (1 Bq = 1 disintegration per second).


Given that the activity of the tracer on initial synthesis was 18750 MBq, and the half-life of 11C is 20.334 min, how much time is required to pass so as to allow safe administration of the radio tracer drug?