Toxicology Assignment 2

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Each Module exercise needs to be answered, each module needs to be approximately 900-1000 words with 4 references each.
Module Exercise 5: Forensic testing
Discuss the following aspects of performance enhancing substances in the Australian sport setting:
1. The main substances of abuse with their physiological effects.
2. Testing and detection methods for these substances.
[Hint: The question is divided into two so answer it in two parts, giving common sub-headings to link the parts. In part 1, some sort of grouping of the substances is desirable (eg: stimulants, analgesics), so that different generic agents can be discussed under each, with some examples, rather than trying to describe a large number of individual substances, or individual drugs. Testing and detection are two different concepts. A sample has to first be taken and then subjected to analysis. There is no need to give details of, say, HPLC analysis here, but you should be able to say basically what test each substance undergoes, with something on the working principle of each test].
Module Exercise 6: Toxic gases, vapours and industrial releases
Discuss the Bhopal disaster of 1984 in terms of:
1. causes
2. population health effects
[Hint: Lots of information available here, so do some “chaos sorting” by going to a simplified account first of all (eg: Wikipedia). Accidents generally do not result from one event, but from a series of events, so present these on a time base where possible. There is likely to be a mass of general, predisposing events which could come at the beginningof the account, and maybe some unknowns which could be added at the end of the account]. When discussing population health effects you are moving into the realm of “environmental epidemiology” and giving rates to contextualise the health effects will be expected].
Module Exercise 7: Particulates and fibres, tobacco smoke
Discuss the following aspects of tobacco smoking in Australia:
1. The pathophysiology of two specific toxic substances found in cigarette smoke.
2. Strategies used by an Australian health authority (of your choice) to reduce the incidence of cigarette smoking and its impact on the public.
[Hint: Toxicology is multidisciplinary and also works at different levels of resolution. The first part requires you to “zoom in” for a detailed description of how the substance operates at physiological level on cells and human biochemistry. The second part requires you to “zoom out” for a sociolegal/educational approach and is likely to be sourced from a government site, with some possibility of including references to material in the reviewed literature]
Module Exercise 8: Poisons of war and bioterrorism
In terms of UN Resolution 687 the organophosphate sarin has been classified as a weapon of mass destruction. Discuss the following:
1. Physiological action of this substance (organophosphorus pesticides have the same basic action).
2. The events taking place in one well-documented bioterrorism incident involving this substance.
[Hint: When asked for physiological action, a diagram with short notes can save a lot of descriptive writing. When there is a lot of information about an incident, try to scan a few sources, including peer-reviewed papers if available, and then produce a time-sequenced summary, possibly with sub-headings to draw the reader’s attention to the main events. Where there is a lot of information available, it does not mean that the answer should necessarily be longer than other answers, but it should show evidence of fairly comprehensive researching. To do this, try to use more references than usual].
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